Yes, when creating your survey you have the option to ask for a credit card payment. This can be a fixed fee, or you can make this flexible so a person can pay any amount.
From the survey page under the Questions setup, select the Question type Constituent Field.
Once Constituent Field is selected, you will see options under Constituent Field Name and select Payment.
In the Question Text you can describe what the payment is for and determine if you want a fixed price or if you prefer a flexible amount, for example if you are soliciting a donation. You will also identify the For, Fund, Event, and Appeal as needed for the transaction.
The payment option will appear as a credit card purchase only. The first example below shows a fixed price, while the second is a flexible payment.